Stakeholder Analysis - Background Info
In general, a stakeholder analysis is a process of gathering relevant information to determine whose interests should be taken into account when developing a policy or a program/project. As such, a stakeholder analysis will provide useful information about the persons and organizations involved in the suggested policy or project. Stakeholders can be defined as individuals or groups that have a stake, or an interest, in a particular issue and can be of any level in the society from global, national and regional down to household level (André et al, 2012).
For the purpose of this analysis, the stakeholder is any actor that has an impact on energy use in a public building or a public district. Stakeholders can also be groups of any size of aggregation such as individuals, organizations and unorganized groups.
How to Perform a Stakeholder Analysis
The relevant stakeholders who should be considered in a stakeholder analysis vary according to the type of improvement required. The method of identifying relevant stakeholders can be performed in different ways. A systematic categorization of stakeholders often begins with a split between the stakeholders that are responsible for the implementation of the policy or project and those that are affected by it (André et al, 2012). Further methodologies to systematic classify stakeholders have for example been described by Ballejos & Montagna (2008) where relevant stakeholders are identified in five steps. These are:
1) Specify stakeholder types
2) Specify stakeholder roles
3) Select stakeholders
4) Associate stakeholders with roles
5) Analyse influence and interest of different stakeholders
To summarize, the first four steps in the analysis, aim at identifying the stakeholders and classifying them according to their role, whilst the fifth step is used to evaluate their importance. The methodology for stakeholder analysis presented in this Support Guide builds on the methodologies presented by André et al. (2012) and Ballejos & Montagna (2008).
When identifying stakeholders, it is useful to classify them in different roles and types. As mentioned already, one division could be to separate stakeholders that are responsible for the project and another by those that are affected by it. Another valuable division could be between stakeholders that have an influence on products and innovation that will be used when retrofitting a public building/district ex-ante or ex-post the proposed project. In general, different stakeholder types can be described as “the classification of sets of stakeholders sharing the same properties and attributes as regards the dimension under analysis” (Evaristo et al, 2009).
A white paper from the consulting organisation Climate Strategies (2010), analysed cost effective opportunities to improve energy efficiency of buildings and carried out a stakeholder analysis where stakeholders were grouped into clients, financial stakeholders, electricity and gas utilities and others (such as government and energy retrofit providers). An EU-project (Green Solar Cities, 2008) assessing energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy in buildings, classified the important stakeholders in institutional stakeholders (building authority, housing authority, energy companies and promoter), technological stakeholders and users (the public, owner occupants and tenants of dwellings). A report Energy Efficiency in Buildings – Business realities and opportunities, by World Business Council for Sustainable Development, WBCSD (2008) also describes different types of stakeholders in the building supply chain as Local Authorities, capital providers, developers, designers or architects, engineers, construction companies, agents, owners and tenants.
When analysing the importance of different stakeholders it is common to assess how the different stakeholders’ influence the project or the policy and their interest in the project (Ballejos and Montagna, 2008 & André et al, 2012).
- Influence can be described as the stakeholder’s power over the project, where a stakeholder with high influence can control key decisions.
- Interest could be derived from the stakeholder’s needs and goals related to the proposed project or policy.
Usually a simple matrix, including influence and interest, can be developed (see e.g. Ballejos and Montagna, 2008, Bryson, 1995 and Eden & Ackermann, 1998) to identify the key players. For example, the exercise can be performed through brainstorming sessions where the participants consider the actors that are important for the specific project or policy (see e.g. André et al, 2012).
Relationships between stakeholders
An additional step in the stakeholder analysis could be to assess the level of connections and cooperation between actors. A stakeholder with many connections to other stakeholders could be seen as having a lot of power, even if they do not have high influence. (André et al, 2012). As already pointed out, many different stakeholder groups are involved in the retrofitting of public buildings. The main relationships between different actors regarding energy efficiency in buildings have been described by WBCSD (2008), see Figure 1 below.
ANDRÉ, K., L. SIMONSSON, Å. SWARTLING, B-L. LINNÉR. (2012) “Method Development for Identifying and Analysing Stakeholders in Climate Change Adaptation Processes”, Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 14:3, pp. 243-261.
BALLEJOS, L., C. AND J. M. MONTAGNA (2008) “Method for stakeholder identification in inter-organizational environments”, Requirement Engineering, 13(4), pp. 281-297.
BRYSON, J. (1995) “Strategic Planning for Public and Non-profit Organizations” (rev. edition), San Francisco, CA: Jossey- Bass.
CLIMATE STRATEGIES (2010) “Financing Energy Efficiency Building Retrofits: International Policy and Business Model Review and Regulatory Alternatives for Spain”, Madrid.
EDEN, C. AND ACKERMANN, F. (1998) “Making Strategy: The Journey of Strategic Management”, London: Sage Publications.
EVARISTO, J.R., R. SCUDDER, K.C. DESOUZA, O. SATO (2004) “A dimensional analysis of geographically distributed project teams: a case study”, Eng Technol Manag 21(3), pp. 175-189.
GREEN SOLAR CITIES (2008) “Deliverable 1: Stakeholder Analysis”, OBT Research Institute & Delft University of Technology.
WBCSD 2010, “Roadmap for a transformation of energy use in buildings”
Stakeholder Analysis - Help
In this section you will prepare a Stakeholder Analysis.
The stakeholder analysis enables you to identify the users of your building/district and helps you to understand the role they play and the influence that they may have on energy saving policies in your organisation.
Please fill out the form below for each stakeholder or target. Further stakeholders can be added by clicking the add stakeholder tab. The chart which is generated will display a visual representation of the importance of each stakeholder.
For more information click on the background information tab.