Your District/Buildings - Background Info
Public buildings are defined as buildings that are owned or occupied by Public Authorities, or are intended for use by the general public. Moreover, a public district can be explained as an area of a country or town that is fully or partially set up of public buildings. There is, however, no general rule on the definition of district borders.
Data Tabs – Climate, District, Building and other Data
The climate is an important environmental factor and should be considered when retrofitting a building(s). It is necessary to determine the location of the building according to the predominant climate and specific setting to determine its energy consumption.
A micro-climate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. This can be influenced by human activity and also by the natural surroundings of a specific location. Micro-climate or heat island effect has a direct influence on operational energy usage. District/buildings’ specific site climate can dictate what passive design strategies are most suitable and effective for the site. For example, strategies that are perfect for a hot dry location may be counterproductive in a cold humid climate. A site’s climate is determined by its latitude, altitude, and terrain.
In A2PBEER, the climate classification takes into consideration the Heating Degree Days, Cooling Degree Days, Topography, Heat Island Effect and Wind Factor.
When looking at a District, it is important to determine what kind of energy usage needs to be reduced. Energy consumed in urban environments can be grouped into three categories (Doherty et al., 2009):
- Transportation energy plays an important role in district energy usage, however retrofitting of buildings and groups of buildings cannot directly reduce this kind of energy usage.
- Embodied energy does not affect building energy consumption directly.
- Operational energy mainly refers to energy for heating or cooling. The amount of operational energy can vary greatly based on different urban morphology and usage patterns. The Urban form also influences on-site energy production, as it can determine whether renewable sources can be used and have access to district energy supply and distribution technologies (Zanon & Verones, 2013).
In A2PBEER, the information collected is based around the operational energy used around the site. The morphology, namely the shape and size of the building are also considered in the building typologies.
To determine how building characteristics affect energy use, it is important to collect data on the age, location and function of the building. These aspects mainly influence the construction type of the building.
To determine the energy consumption of a building the specification of the energy systems and equipment has to be collected, in particular, the parameters of the envelope and the type, age, efficiency and controlled regulation of the lighting, heating, cooling and domestic hot water systems. The building also has to be put into an environment context. The environmental parameters that affect the energy use (solar, wind…) has to be investigated. All the aforementioned parameters determine the overall energy use and the best possible retrofitting methodologies of a public building.
Other factors which should be considered when carrying out this Toolkit are the historic value of the building or site, the size of budget and sustainable ethics, as these can have a significant bearing on the decision making to reduce energy consumption.
By choosing different characteristics, in the background, typical values are assigned to each answer, derived from norms and information compiled in the other work packages about public building types.
Energy demand from heating, cooling, ventilation, domestic hot water and lighting are estimated for a reference building for each building function. The values are changed according to the selections of the user based on a parameter sensitivity analysis.
As the energy use is calculated this way, it is only an estimate, the exact values are not shown in the tool, only the relative significance of the different energy usage form is displayed. For example, if the tool estimates that the heating energy demand is responsible for the largest share of the energy usage, the tool will recommend to provide high priority to technologies aiming at the reduction of the heating energy demand.
In addition, the tool will automatically recommend some technologies and exclude others according to the selections of the user. For example, if the building has single glazing, then glazing technologies are recommended, but if the building already has triple glazed modern windows, then these technologies will be excluded from the list.
Your District/Buildings - Help
On this page you can add or edit your buildings or districts. There are 4 main options:
- Add a new building and define the building characteristics
- Edit a building and refine the building characteristics
- Delete a building
- Download a report about one or aspects of one or more buildings
Adding a New Building
Select the “Add a building” option from the drop-down and enter the information about your building/district
Edit a Building
This option allows you to define in detail the characteristics of your building. This is important as you can now get recommendations on how to improve the energy efficiency of your building and identify issues that need to be fixed.
Delete a Building
You may have entered a building in error so you can delete it using this function
Download a Report
You can choose one building or all of your building and you can chose to include one or more of the following in the report.
- Building Characteristics: This report outputs the characteristics of your building as entered by you.
- National Standards: Compares your building against the national standards for your country
- Stakeholder Analysis: A report of the stakeholders for your building rating their influence and power.
- Technologies: Based on the characteristics of your building we recommend the technologies you should use to fix any issues with energy efficiency.
The following section requires you to input relevant information from your building(s). Complete the survey for your chosen building(s) by selecting each section and clicking on the drop down arrows. A2PBEER have formulated a database from a range of buildings and districts by collecting information on their Climate, District, Building and Other data. On completing the survey, this information will automatically be incorporated into the following sections to provide recommendations on best practice and energy efficient solutions.To access this information hover over each Data Tab.
For each Data Tab, a choice of categories are provided where a number of answers can be chosen. Users always have to select the most appropriate answers. In the case of each parameter, a short description will be given to help the selection.
For more information click on the background information tab.